Identification of Respiratory Sounds Collected from Microphones Embedded in Mobile Phones

Keita Fukuyama, Osamu Sugiyama, Kazuo Chin, Susumu Satou, Shigemi Matsumoto, Manabu Muto
Vol. 11 (2022) p.58-67

Sudden deterioration of condition in patients with various diseases, such as cardiopulmonary arrest, may result in poor outcome even after resuscitation. Early detection of deterioration is important in medical and long-term care settings, regardless of the acute or chronic phase of disease. Early detection and appropriate interventions are essential before resuscitating measures are required. Among the vital signs that indicate the general condition of a patient, respiratory rate has a greater ability to predict serious events such as thromboembolism and sepsis than heart rate and blood pressure, even in early stages. Despite its importance, however, respiratory rate is frequently overlooked and not measured, making it a neglected vital sign. To facilitate the measurement of respiratory rate, a non-invasive method of detecting respiratory sounds was developed based on deep learning technology, using a built-in microphone in a smartphone. Smartphones attached to the bed headboards of 20 participants undergoing polysomnography (PSG) at Kyoto University Hospital recorded respiratory sounds. Sound data were synchronized with overnight respiratory information. After excluding periods of abnormal breathing on the PSG report, sound data were processed for each 1-minute period. Expiration sound was determined using the pressure flow sensor signal on PSG. Finally, a model to identify the expiration section from the sound information was created using a deep learning algorithm from the convolutional Long Short Term Memory network. The accuracy of the learning model in identifying the expiratory section was 0.791, indicating that respiratory rate can be determined using the microphone in a smartphone. By collecting data from more patients and improving the accuracy of this method, respiratory rates could be more easily monitored in all situations, both inside and outside the hospital.